Easy Composting For Beginners


Composting at home is pretty simple, and you can get started for free!

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If you’re new to composting, don’t worry – it’s actually a really easy process!

Composting at home is pretty simple, and you can get started for free! I’ve broken it all down below to get you started and on your way to your own compost pile.

There are a few different methods to choose from, but we’ll focus on the easiest and cheapest option for beginners: heap composting. Heap composting can be done right in your backyard, and you don’t need any special structures or containers to get started. You can also use any large bin or container that you have available. This gives you some flexibility if you need to move your compost site later on.

compost pile with egg shells

How to Start to Composting

There are actually a few different composting methods to choose from when starting out. The easiest and cheapest method is called heap composting.

Heap composting is great for newbies, as you can start the pile right in your backyard. You can start it without any structures, right on top of the soil. You can also choose to use any large bin such as a plastic garbage bin. This gives you the freedom to move the compost site if necessary.

Typically, you can start a compost pile any time of the year, but fall is a great time to start due to all the organic nitrogen and carbon materials that are readily available. I’ll talk more about the materials used in a second.

The steps towards composting can be broken down as follows: choosing a location, adding organic materials, adding water, and turning the pile, as necessary. 

Step 1: Choosing a location for your compost pile

First things first, you need to choose a location to start your pile. The best location is one that gets partial shade and sun. An area that gets good drainage is also ideal. You don’t want your pile to be located in an area that floods or will have a lot of standing water.

Placing your pile directly on the ground and not on the pavement is also very important. Even if you are building the compost pile in a bin, you’ll want to place the bin on the ground if possible. This makes it easier for all the microorganisms and worms to get access to the pile. These are what speed up the decomposing and breaking down of the organic materials you’ll be adding to the pile.

Quick Tip: If you do not have a space outdoors to start a compost pile, you could start with a small composting bin indoors. There are some online that are really ugly and I wouldn’t want in my kitchen, but there are also some that are pretty decent looking! I wrote a blog post with 10 Composting Bins That Aren’t Hideous and it is a great resource to get you started. 

compost pile with vegetables and kitchen scraps

Step 2: Adding your organic materials

Now that you’ve got the perfect location picked out, it’s time to start building the pile. You can add things like fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, eggshells, and more. Just make sure to avoid any meat or dairy products, as these can attract pests.

Essentially you are going to create a mixture with two different types of compost materials. These two categories are Carbon-based aka “Green Materials” or Nitrogen-based aka “Brown Materials”.

  • Carbon-based: Often called “Green Materials,” these materials increase the overall size of the pile and allow for proper aeration.

The following materials are all carbon-rich:

Nitrogen-based: Often called “Brown Materials,” these organic materials are protein-rich and provide what’s needed for making the enzymes that will help break down the compost pile.

The following materials are all nitrogen-rich:

  • food scraps: fruits and vegetables (no meat, bones, or dairy)
  • green lawn clippings
  • green leaves
  • coffee grounds

girl smiling in garden

You always want to have more carbon materials than nitrogen-based in your composting heap. A good ratio to shoot for would be 2/3 carbon and 1/3 nitrogen-based material.

  • When starting your pile, the best building technique is to make alternating layers of your carbon and nitrogen materials. Usually starting the bottom with some bulkier carbon materials such as dried leaves and pine needles.
  • Grass clippings work great for the next layer of nitrogen materials.
  • Continue adding your materials in this fashion until you run out of material or reach the top of the bin you’re using. To create as little smell as possible try and cover the top of the pile in carbon-based materials. This will help with the smell immensely.
  • Adding some dirt to your pile can be a good boost of microorganisms to the pile, and helps the decomposing process go faster.

RELATED: My Houseplants Love Coffee!

Step 3: Watering and turning the compost pile 

Once you finish adding all your materials to the pile, you’re going to want to give it a good watering.

You want to keep the pile moist, but not overly saturated after the initial watering. If you live in really dry areas you may want to water the pile yourself during long periods of no rain.

During the rainy season, it can be good to cover the pile if possible. Using a tarp or the lid in the bin is a good way to keep the entire pile from being soaked for long periods of time. You can also turn the pile over more frequently to help it dry out faster.

  • Turning the pile: Every couple of weeks mix the pile-up using a shovel or pitchfork. This brings more oxygen into the pile, which is needed for the composting to work. Turning the pile regularly will help speed the entire process up.
  • As you are adding ingredients to the pile over time, you will want to mix the new materials into the pile each time.
  • Make sure to REALLY mix this pile-up. It’s very important for aerating the pile. This is even more important when using a bin.

When the compost is available to use?

This can depend on how fast the breaking down of materials goes. It can take anywhere from four weeks to twelve months for the materials to be fully decomposed.

Finished compost should look like dark, crumbly topsoil. If you can still see what looks like the starting ingredients, you should give the pile some more time to work.

How to Use Compost

FINALLY, it’s time to reap the rewards of working on this compost pile. There are lots of ways you can use this rich resource for your plants and soil needs.

  • One of my favorite ways to use compost is to mix it in with the soil when repotting or planting outside.
  • You can put it on top of garden and tree beds for a nutrient boost.
  • You can even sprinkle it on top of the soil on your lawn, to help improve the soil’s physical condition as it breaks down over time.


How often do I need to turn my compost pile?

You should turn your compost every two to four weeks to aerate it and help the decomposition process.

What are compost Brown Materials?

Brown materials are items that are high in carbon. This includes items like dead leaves, twigs, and branches. These items help to balance out the green materials, which are high in nitrogen. You need a good mix of both brown and green materials in your compost pile in order to create rich, nutrient-rich compost.

What are compost Green Materials?

Green materials are items that are high in nitrogen. This includes items like fruit and vegetable scraps, grass clippings, and coffee grounds. These items help to balance out the brown materials, which are high in carbon. You need a good mix of both green and brown materials in your compost pile in order to create rich, nutrient-rich compost.

What should I do if my compost starts to smell bad?

If your compost pile starts to develop a strong odor, it likely means that it has too much moisture. Try adding some more dry brown materials like dead leaves or straw, and make sure to turn the pile more frequently to aerate it.

What can I use my compost for?

Once your compost is ready, you can use it in your garden to improve the quality of your soil. It’s also great for houseplants! You can add a thin layer of compost to the top of the soil, or mix it in with your potting mix when you’re repotting.

Can I compost anything?

There are a few things that you should avoid adding to your compost pile, such as meat and dairy products (which can attract pests), and diseased plants. Otherwise, you can compost most organic materials.

What is the best ratio of green to brown materials?

A good general rule is to have a mix of two-thirds green material (such as fruit and vegetable scraps) to one-third brown material (like dead leaves or shredded newspaper).

Do I need a Compost Bin?

No, you don’t necessarily need a compost bin to start composting. However, having a bin can help to contain the materials and keep the area tidy. If you decide to get a bin, there are many different types available on the market. You can choose from plastic bins, wooden bins, or even metal bins. There are also many different sizes to choose from, so you can find one that will fit perfectly in your space.

What if I live in an Apartment?

If you live in an apartment or other small space, you can still compost! You can purchase a small bin or container to use for your compost. Alternatively, there are many community gardens that offer composting programs. This is a great way to get started if you don’t have a lot of space at home.

RELATED: 10 Composting Bins That Aren’t Hideous

No matter where you live, there’s no excuse not to start composting! It’s easy, cheap, and it’s great for the environment. So what are you waiting for? Get started today!

Final Thoughts on Composting for Beginners

  • Experiment and try new things with your pile. Think of it as a fun science experiment.
  • If you are using a bin or plastic garbage can drill some holes around the container and the lid (if using) to allow for airflow into the container. The more the better.
  • Soggy compost pile: Try adding more of the carbon-based materials listed above. This will help to soak up some of the excess water. Also try covering the pile if possible, especially during the rainy months.
  • When in doubt, add more carbon materials.
  • Remember to turn your pile on a frequent schedule.

We hope these beginner tips have helped you get started with composting! If you have any other questions, feel free to ask in the comments below. Happy composting!

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graphic easy compost for beginners

Join the Conversation

  1. You have a major contradiction in your article: “ You always want to have more carbon materials than nitrogen-based in your composting heap. A good ratio to shoot for would be one-third carbon and two-thirds nitrogen-based material.”. 1/3 is less than 2/3. Probably just a flip/flop typo, but definitely worth fixing.

    1. Ren Lenhof Author says:

      oh my gosh! thank you for catching this!! I really appreciate it!

      1. So should it be 2/3 carbon materials and 1/3 Nitrogen based? I was wanting to start a compost pile but I want to make sure I’m doing it correctly.

      2. Ren Lenhof Author says:

        Hi! Sorry for the confusion, I accidentally flip-flopped the sentence. It should read: You always want to have more carbon materials than nitrogen-based in your composting heap. A good ratio to shoot for would be 2/3 carbon and 1/3 nitrogen-based material.
        I just updated the post. Thanks so much for reading! 🙂

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